Modified Condition/Decision Coverage software testing criterion

This document contains pointers to on-line information on MC/DC software testing criterion.
Please contact Sergiy Vilkomir if you know of relevant on-line information not included here.


  1. RTCA/DO-178B. Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, RTCA, Washington D.C., USA, 1992.
  2. RTCA/DO-248B. Final Annual Report for Clarification of DO-178B "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification".
  3. RTCA/DO-278. Guidelines for CNS/ATM Systems Software Integrity Assurance.

    Reports (NASA, FAA, Boeing)

  4. J. J. Chilenski and L. A. Richey, Definition for a Masking form of Modified Condition Decision Coverage (MCDC), Boeing Report, December 1997, 42 pp. ( (pdf file) , 146K).

  5. K. J. Hayhurst, C. A. Dorsey, J. C. Knight, N. G. Leveson and G. F. McCormick, Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification: Report on the SSAC Survey , Report NASA/TM-1999-209519, August 1999, 100 pp. ( (pdf file) , 583K).

  6. J. J. Chilenski, An Investigation of Three Forms of the Modified Condition Decision Coverage (MCDC) Criterion, Report DOT/FAA/AR-01/18, April 2001, 214 pp. ( (pdf file) , 884K).

  7. K. J. Hayhurst, D. S. Veerhusen, J. J. Chilenski, and L. K. Rierson, A Practical Tutorial on Modified Condition/Decision Coverage, Report NASA/TM-2001-210876, NASA, USA, May 2001 ( (pdf file) , 569K).

  8. FAA Certification Authorities Software Team (CAST), Position Paper CAST-6, Rationale for Accepting Masking MC/DC in Certification Projects, Completed August, 2001.

  9. FAA Certification Authorities Software Team (CAST), Position Paper CAST-10, What is a “Decision” in Application of Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) and Decision Coverage (DC)? , Completed June 2002.

    Journal and conference papers

  10. J.J. Chilenski and S.P. Miller, Applicability of Modified Condition/Decision Coverage to Software Testing, Software Engineering Journal, Volume 9, Issue 5, September 1994, pp. 193-200.
  11. J. J. Chilenski and P. H. Newcomb, Formal Specification Tools for Test Coverage Analysis, Proceedings of the Ninth Knowledge-Based Software Engineering Conference (KBSE'94), Monterey, CA, USA, September 20-23 1994, pp. 59-68.
  12. R. Jasper, M. Brennan, K. Williamson, B. Currier, and D. Zimmerman, Test data generation and feasible path analysis, Proceedings of the 1994 International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis, Seattle, WA, USA, August 17-19, 1994, pp. 95-107 ( (pdf file) , 995K).
  13. Y.Y. Li, Structural test cases analysis and implementation. 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS'99), New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA, 8-11 August, 1999, Volume 2, pp. 882-885.
  14. D. Kuhn, Fault Classes and Error Detection Capability of Specification-Based Testing, ACM Transactions On Software Engineering and Methodology, Vol. 8, No. 4, October 1999, pp. 411-424 (PostScript file , 129K).

  15. A. Dupuy and N. Leveson, An empirical evaluation of the MC/DC coverage criterion on the HETE-2 satellite software. Proceedings of the Digital Aviation Systems Conference (DASC), Philadelphia, USA, October 2000 ( (pdf file) , 65K).

  16. A. L. White, Comments on Modified Condition/Decision Coverage for Software Testing, 2001 IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 10-17 March 2001, Big Sky, Montana, USA, volume 6, pp. 2821-2828.
  17. S. Rayadurgam and M. Heimdahl, Coverage based test-case generation using model checkers, Proceedings of the Eighth Annual IEEE International Conference and Worfshop on Engineering of Computer Based Systems (ECBS 2001 ), 17-20 April 2001, Washington, D.C., USA, pp. 83-91.
  18. S. A. Vilkomir and J. P. Bowen. Formalization of software testing criteria using the Z notation, Proceedings of COMPSAC 2001: 25th IEEE Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 8--12 October 2001. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001, pp. 351-356 ( (pdf file) , 473K; PostScript file, 76K).

  19. K. J. Hayhurst, D. S. Veerhusen, A Practical Approach to Modified Condition/Decision Coverage, 20th Digital Avionics Systems Conference ( DASC), Daytona Beach, Florida, USA, October 14-18, 2001, Vol. 1, pp. 1B2/1-1B2/10.
  20. S. A. Vilkomir and J. P. Bowen. Reinforced Condition/Decision Coverage (RC/DC): A New Criterion for Software Testing, Proceedings of ZB2002: 2nd International Conference of Z and B Users, Grenoble, France, 23-25 January 2002. Didier Bert, Jonathan P. Bowen, Martin Henson and Ken Robinson (eds.). Springer-Verlag, LNCS 2272, 2002, pp. 295-313 (  (pdf file) , 149K)

  21. J. Jones, M. Harrold, Test-Suite Reduction and Prioritization for Modified Condition/Decision Coverage, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Volume 29, Number 3, March 2003, pp. 195-209. ( (pdf file) , 1.19 Mb).
  22. A. Pretschner. Compositional Generation of MC/DC Integration Test Suites, Proc. TACoS'03, Warsaw, April 13, 2003. Published in Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 82(6):1-11, 2003, Abstract

  23.  (new) S. A. Vilkomir, K. Kapoor and J. P. Bowen. Tolerance of Control-Flow Testing Criteria, Proceedings of 27th IEEE Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference ( COMPSAC 2003), Dallas, Texas, USA, 3-6 November 2003. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2003, pp. 182-187 (PostScript file, 199K).

  24.  (new) P.G. Bishop. MC/DC based estimation and detection of residual faults in PLC logic networks, In Supplementary Proceedings fourteenth International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE '03), Fast Abstracts, pp. 297-298, 17-20 November, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2003,  (pdf file) , 56K)

    Presentations at FAA Software Conferences

  25. M. DeWalt, MCDC, a blistering love/hate relationship, FAA National Software Conference, Long Beach, CA, USA, April 6-9, 1999 (Slides  (pdf file) , 210K).

  26. K. J. Hayhurst, Streamlining Software Aspects of Certification Program Overview, FAA National Software Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, August 8-11, 2000 (Slides  (pdf file) , 548K).

  27. C. Dorsey, Verification Within An RTCA DO-178B Framework, FAA National Software Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, August 8-11, 2000 (Slides  (pdf file) , 3,4Mb).

  28. K. J. Hayhurst, Masking MC/DC, FAA National Software Conference, Danvers, MA, USA, June 5-7, 2001 (Slides  (pdf file) , 79K).

  29. K. J. Hayhurst, L.Rierson and D. S. Veerhusen, MC/DC Tutorial, FAA National Software Conference, Danvers, MA, USA, June 5-7, 2001 (Slides  (pdf file) , 606K).

  30. K. J. Hayhurst and D. S. Veerhusen, Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) Tutorial, FAA National Software Conference, Dallas, TX, USA, May 14-17 2002 (Slides  (pdf file) , 209K).

    Particular aspects connected with MC/DC

  31. S. Burton, Towards Automated Unit Testing of Statechart Implementations. Technical Report YCS319, Department of Computer Science, University of York, UK. September 1999 ( (pdf file) , 5.05 Mb).

  32. A. J. Offutt, Y. Xiong, and S. Liu, Criteria for generating specification-based tests. Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS'99), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, October 18-21, 1999, pp. 119-129 (  (pdf file) , 210K).

  33. V. Cortellessa, B. Cukic, D. Del Gobbo, A. Mili, M. Shereshevsky, H. Sandhu, Certifying Adaptive Flight Control Software, ISACC 2000 - The Software Risk Management Conference, Reston, Virginia, USA, 25-26 September, 2000 ( (pdf file) , 85K).

  34. S. C. Reid, BS 7925-2: the software component testing standard, Proceedings of First Asia-Pacific Conference on Quality Software, Hong Kong, China, 30-31 October 2000, pp. 139 - 148.
  35. R. Chapman, Industrial Experience with SPARK. Proceedings of ACM SIGAda Annual International Conference (SIGAda 2000), November 12-16, 2000, Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA ( (pdf file) , 33K).

  36. J.A. McDermid and D.J. Pumfrey, Software Safety: Why is there no Consensus?. Proceedings of the 19th International System Safety Conference, Huntsville, AL, USA, September 10-14, 2001 ( (pdf file) , 114K).

  37. A. Gargantini, E. Riccobene, ASM-based Testing: Coverage Criteria and Automatic Test Sequence Generation, Journal of Universal Computer Science, Volume 10, Number 8, November 2001, ( (pdf file) , 164K).


  38. AdaTEST

  39. ATTOL Coverage

  40. BEACON Tester

  41. Cantata++

  42. CodeTEST
  43. CTC++

  44. C++Test

  45. DACS-Object Coverage tools
  46. G-COVER Object Code Analyzer

  47. LDRA Testbed
  48. Logiscope TestChecker

  49. Rational TestMate

  50. Rational Test RealTime

  51. Simulink Performance Tools 1.1.1

  52. VectorCAST/Cover



  54. MCDC Standard Effort - IEEE P1506, (May 1998)

  55. MCDC, a FAA Interactive Video Teletraining Course

  56. Alexander Theel's page, (Germ., 1998)

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Further information for possible inclusion is welcome.
Last updated 30 January 2004 by Sergiy Vilkomir.